|飯||はん – meal||昼||ひる – noon||明日||あした – tomorrow|
|晩||ばん – evening||次||つぎ – next||一寸||ちょっと – a little|
listen to the following conversation, please
tsugi no kaiwa wo kiite kudasai
つぎの かいわを きいて ください。
listen again, please
mou ichido kiite kudasai
もう いちど きいて ください。
1: Man; 2: Ms. Sato
1: Ms. Sato.
Won’t you eat lunch with me?
2: Yeah. But at what time? one o’clock?
1: No. later.
2: Ah, I got it. Two o’clock?
1: Yeah. At two o’clock.
2: Yes. I got it.
1: otoko no hito; 2: satou
1: satou san.
watashi to hiru-gohan wo tabe-masen ka?
2: ee. demo, nan-ji ni？ichi-ji？
1: iie. ato de.
2: aa, wakari-mashita. ni-ji?
1: ee. ni-ji ni.
2: hai. wakari-mashita.
1: おとこの ひと; 2: さとう
わたしと ひるごはんを たべませんか
1: 男の人; 2: さとう
once, one time
once more, again
a little bit
to kindly do
- The name of 4 is ‘yon’ (よん) but, to facilitate the pronunciation when combined with certain sounds, it is sometimes shortened to ‘yo’ (よ). Thus, 4:00 is ‘yo-ji’ (よじ), not ‘yon-ji’.
However, won’t you join me later for lunch?
demo, ato de watashi to hiru-gohan wo tabe-masen ka?
でも、あとで わたしと ひるごはんを たべませんか。
demo, ato de boku to hiru-gohan wo tabe-nai?
でも、あとで ぼくと ひるごはんを たべない？
The following comments explain some of the grammar in more detail.
-tai form – たい
The -tai form plays the same role as the English auxiliary verb “want”; however, it only applies to what we want or do not want, not to what other people want or do not want.
-taku [ari-masen/nai (desu)]
We are converting the verb into an i-adjective and then conjugating it as an i-adjective, using ‘desu’ as a decorator only. For example:
I want to eat something
I don’t want to eat
nani-ka tabe-tai desu
tabe-taku nai desu
Since the verb-tai is an i-adjective, then the direct object is marked with ‘ga’ instead of ‘wo’:
I want sushi.
I don’t want sake.
I want to eat sushi.
I don’t want to drink sake.
sushi ga hoshi-i desu.
o-sake ga hoshi-ku ari-masen.
sushi ga tabe-tai desu.
o-sake ga nomi-taku ari-masen.
-te from – て
The -te form is an imperative, a gentle request, e.g., “please, eat”.
The narrator of the recording introduces the conversation of Lesson 10 with:
listen to the following conversation, please.
tsugi no kaiwa wo kiite, kudasai.
Here the role of the -te form as an imperative is clear: “listen, please”.
However, the -te form has a second role. Although our translation above does not show it, the Japanese sentence has two verbs in imperative: ‘kiite’ is the imperative of ‘kiku’ (to listen), and ‘kudasai’ is the imperative of ‘kudasaru’ (to kindly do for one). Hence, a translation closer to the Japanese grammar would be:
listen to the following conversation, kindly do that for me
tsugi no kaiwa wo kiite, kudasai
This is not one sentence but two complete sentences, each one with its own verb, each one a gentle request.
What happens is that in Japanese we can connect sentences as long as the verb of each sentence is in the imperative, and then the tense of all of the verbs is set to the tense of the last verb. For example,
I drink, eat, listen, and speak
I drank, ate, listened, and spoke
nonde, tabete, kiite, hanashi-masu
nonde, tabete, kiite, hanashi-mashita
I eat sushi and drink sake
I ate sushi and drank sake
sushi wo tabete, o-sake wo nomi-masu.
sushi wo tabete, o-sake wo nomi-mashita.
This imperative form is called the -te form because -te is the most common suffix of the imperative, e.g., tabete (from ‘taberu’). However, the -te form of other verbs have different suffixes, e.g., kiite (from ‘kiku’), or nonde (from ‘nomu’).
Prefixes and suffixes
ji – じ,時
ji is the counter for hours. Unlike the counter for long thin things – hon – from lesson 8, ji does not change with different numbers, i.e. it is always ‘ji’. However, the numbers change:
- ‘4 hours’ is not ‘yon-ji’ but ‘yo-ji’
- ‘7 hours’ is not ‘nana-ji’ but ‘shichi-ji’, and
- ‘9 hours’ is not ‘kyu-ji’ but ‘ku-ji’
Depending on the context, we may be referring to hours on the clock, or to time intervals measured in hours:
|English 1||English 2||romaji||kana||kanji|
|1 hour||1:00 o'clock||ichi-ji||いちじ||一時|
|2 hours||2:00 o'clock||ni-ji||にじ||二時|
|3 hours||3:00 o'clock||san-ji||さじ||三時|
|4 hours||4:00 o'clock||yo-ji||よじ||四時|
|5 hours||5:00 o'clock||go-ji||ごじ||五時|
|6 hours||6:00 o'clock||roku-ji||ろくじ||六時|
|7 hours||7:00 o'clock||shichi-ji||しちじ||七時|
|8 hours||8:00 o'clock||hachi-ji||はちじ||八時|
|9 hours||9:00 o'clock||ku-ji||くじ||九時|
|10 hours||10:00 o'clock||juu-ji||じゅうじ||十時|
|11 hours||11:00 o'clock||juu-ichi-ji||じゅういちじ||十一時|
|12 hours||12:00 o'clock||juu-ni-ji||じゅうにじ||十二時|
|how many hours?||what time?||nan-ji||なんじ||何時|
chotto – ちょっと, 一寸
‘chotto’ means ‘a little bit’. This is used literally, simply meaning ‘a little bit’:
chotto matte, kudasai.
wait a little bit, please.
or figuratively, as ‘a little bit (difficult)’, which is a polite way to say ‘no’:
ima wa chotto…
Now? (it is) a little bit… (difficult)
kudasai – ください
kudasai can be written in kanji as 下さい, but it is usually written in hiragana: ください. kudasai has two meanings, both imperatives:
please, give me
please, give me money
please, give me 10 dollars
please, do (for me)
please, do me the favor of waiting a little
please, do me the favor of listening
o-kane wo kudasai
juu doru kudasai
chotto matte kudasai