Pimsleur Japanese I-15

Conversation


1: American man; 2: American woman

2: I’m going out
1: Where to?
2: I’m buying something. However, I don’t have any yens, right?
1: how many do you have?
2: eight or nine dollars
1: well then, I’ll give you ten dollars, here you are.
   Now you have 19 dollars, right?
   I’ll also give you yens. Here, 3,000 yen.
2: Thank you very much.


1: america-hito; 2:america-hito josei

2: itekimasu
1: doko e?
2: nanika kaimasu. Demo, en wo motte imasen ne.
1: ikura motte imasu ka?
2: hachi doru ka kyu doru
1: jya, jyuu doru agemasu; hai douzo.
   ima jyuukyuu doru motte imasu ne.
   en mo agemasu. hai, sanzen en.
2: doumo arigatou gozaimasu



1: アメリカ ひと; 2:アメリカ ひと じょせい

2: いてきます。
1: どこ え?
2: なにか かいます。でも、えんを もって いませんね。
1: いくら もって いますか。
2: はち ドルか きゅう ドル。
1: じゃあ、じゅうド ル あげます。はい、どうぞ。
   いま じゅうきゅう ドル もって いますね。
   えんも あげます。はい、さんぜん えん。
2: どうも ありがとう ございます。


1: アメリカ人; 2:アメリカ人じょせい

2: いてきます。
1: どこえ?
2: 何か買います。でも、円をもっていませんね。
1: いくらもっていますか。
2: 八ドルか九ドル。
1: じゃあ、十ドルあげます。はい、どうぞ。
   今十九ドルもっていますね。
   円もあげます。はい、三千円。
2: どうもありがとうございます。


Verbs

the potential form

In English we indicate our ability to perform an action using the auxiliary verb ‘can’, e.g., I can play. In Japanese, we express this ability modifying the verb. The resulting verb is always of a type called a ‘ru’ verb, that can be further conjugated in a particularly simple way.

The rules to form a potential form are the following. If the verb is a ‘ru’ verb, replace ‘ru’ with ‘rareru’, e.g., taberu -> taberareru:


eat (casual)
eat (formal)
dont’ eat (formal)
ate (formal)
didn’t eat (formal)

can eat (casual)
can eat (formal)
can’t eat (formal)
was able to eat
couldn’t eat


taberu
tabemasu
tabemasen
tabemashita
tabemasendeshita

taberareru
taberaremasu
taberaremasen
taberaremashita
taberaremasendeshita


If the verb is not a ‘ru’ verb, replace the last u sound with an ‘e’ sound, and add ‘ru’, e.g., kau -> kaeru:


buy (casual)
buy (formal)
dont’ buy (formal)
bought (formal)
didn’t buy (formal)

can buy (casual)
can buy (formal)
can’t buy (formal)
was able to buy
couldn’t buy


kau
kaimasu
kaimasen
kaimashita
kaimasendeshita

kaeru
kaemasu
kaemasen
kaemashita
kaemasendeshita


As usual, suru and kuru are the only two exceptions:

suru -> dekiru
kuru -> korareru

Potential forms do not have a direct object, so they do not take the を particle; instead they take は or が:


osake! That I can buy.
sushi? I can eat it.


osake ga kaemasu
sushi wa taberaremasu


Particles

he – へ

へ indicates direction, i.e., ‘to’. In spite that it is written as ‘he’, it is pronounced ‘e’ when it is used as a particle.


Where to?
To Tokyo.


doko he?
Toukyou he.


どこ 
とうきょう 


Vocabulary


English
go (te form)
come (masu form)
I’m going out
can eat
can buy
none at all
sushi


romaji
itte
kimasu
ittekimasu
taberaremasu
kaemasu
zenzen
sushi


kana
いって
きます
いってきます
たべられます
かえます
ぜんぜん
すし


kanji
行って
来ます
行って来ます
食べられます
買えます
ぜんぜん
すし


Sample sentences

how many are two and two?


formal
ni to ni de ikura desu ka?
に と に で いくら ですか。

N5: 二と二でいくらですか。

casual
ni to ni de ikura?
に と に で いくら?

N5: 二と二でいくら?



now you are talking to your friend Yoko.


formal
ima yoko san to hanashimasu.
いま よこ さん と はなします。

N5: 今よこさんと話します。

casual
ima yoko chan to hanasu.
いま よこ ちゃん と はなす。

N5: 今よこちゃんと話す。


N5: JLPT N5 + 1st grade kanjis
N4: JLPT N4 + 2nd grade kanjis