Japanese I: 25-30, summary

# pronouns nouns adverbs verbs adject. particles pre/suffix. conjun.
25 mise dou-shite miru oso-i kara (because)
depato mou aku yo (!)
shimaru
itasu
26 takushi ni-san au de (by) -ka (days)
tomo-dachi ta-bun shigoto wo shimasu -nichi (days)
futsu-ka
mik-ka
sayonara
shigoto
27 hyaku issho ni kaeru
28 ji-kan mae sugosu -kan (interval)
yok-ka
i-mi
dou-iu
29 shuu masu (past neg) suki-na
kinou
30 kono oosaka nanimo tsuku
kotoba
kesa

verbs



the masu form – ます
present / future
past


positive
-masu
-mashita


negative
-masen
-masen deshita



# verb masu kanji
1 to understand wakarimasu 分かります
to feel at ease sumimasu 済みます
4 to talk hanashimasu 話なします
5 to eat tabemasu 食べます
to drink nomimasu 飲みます
8 to do shimasu します
to buy kaimasu 買います
14 to give agemasu あげます
15 to come kimasu 来ます
16 to be excessive sugimasu すぎます


# verb masu te form
10 to listen kikimasu kiite
11 to repeat kurikaesu kurikaeshite
13 to possess moteru motte
15 to go kuru itte

Particles

no – の

A の B establishes a relationship where B is, in some way, part of A.

  • place of origin/manufacturing

    American beer (America’s beer)
    Japanese car (Japan’s car)


    america no biiru
    nihon no kuruma


  • absolute location

    inside the car (car’s middle)
    in front of my eyes (eye’s front)


    kuruma no naka
    me no mae


  • relative location
    ko-so-a-do establish a distance to the speaker

    this car (“this’s” car)
    that car (“that’s” car)
    that far away car (“that-far-away’s” car)
    which car (“which’s” car)


    kono kuruma
    sono kuruma
    ano kuruma
    dono kuruma


  • appearance

    the kimono with flowers (“flower’s” kimono)
    the postcard with flowers (“flower’s postcard)


    hana no kimono
    hana no hagaki


  • Place of work

    Mr. Suzuki, from SONY (SONY’s Mr. Suzuki)
    Ms. Tanaka from DOCOMO (“DOCOMO’s” Ms. Tanaka)


    SONY no Suzuki san
    DOCOMO no Tanaka san


Verbs

# verb masu kanji
1 to understand wakarimasu 分かります
to finish sumimasu すみます
4 to talk hanashimasu 話なします
5 to eat tabemasu 食べます
to drink nomimasu 飲みます
8 to do shimasu します
to buy kaimasu 買います

conjunctions

kedo

If we want to connect the sentences, we need to use, from formal to casual, ‘keredomo’, ‘keredo’, or ‘kedo’:

I understand English, but I don’t understand Japanese.
eigo ga wakarimasu kedo, nihongo ga wakarimasen.

i-adjectives -i/-ku

To turn i-adjectives into adverbs, we replace the -i with -ku. ii (good) is a special i-adjective that is conjugated with its old form ‘yoi’, ‘ii‘ (good) is the adjective and ‘yoku‘ (well) is the adverb.


romaji
alone
modify noun
modify verb

alone
modify noun
modify verb


romaji
ii desu
ii biiru
yoku wakarimasu

hayai desu
hayai hito
hayaku nomimasu


English
it’s good
good beer
understand well

it’s fast
fast person
drink quickly