Japanese I-9-16

With lessons 1-16 of the Pimsleur Japanese I course we should be able to understand most of the following clips from ‘Shigatsu wa kimi no uso” (Your lie in April).

San and other honorifics

The honorific that we use when addressing a person says what we think of our relationship with this person. In the clip below, from ‘Your lie in April’ – Ep. 18, a boy addresses the teacher of a girl using the teacher’s name, Arima Kousei, without using the honorific ‘sensei’ (teacher), and the girl goes into a rage at the insult.

 
The default honorific, ‘san’, is a neutral Mr., Mrs., Miss, or Ms., but there are many other ways to refer to someone:

  • [last name] 様, さま – sama – extremely formal and respectful
  • [last name] 殿, どの – dono – formal and respectful, used specially in business and official letters
  • [last name] 先生, せんせい – sensei – respectful way to address teachers, and physicians; it’s pronounced ‘sensee’, not ‘sensei’
  • [last name] さん – san – formal and respectful way to address anyone
  • [last/first name] ちゃま – chama – casual, combines ‘sama’ and ‘chan’, i.e., combines respect and affection
  • [last/first name] ちゃん – chan – casual, usually for same age or younger; it’s most commonly used for females, but it can be used for males, e.g., Japanese people affectionally refer to Arnold Schwarzenegger as ‘shuwa-chan’.
  • [last/first name] 君, くん – kun – casual, same age or younger, only applies to males; ‘kimi’ (you) and ‘kun’ have the same kanji
  • [last name] – casual, used with close friends
  • [first name] – very intimate, used by family and childhood friends

There are many other honorifics. For example, in ‘My Hero Academy’, All-might addresses Midoriya as ‘midoriya-shounen’ (young-man Midoriya) instead of ‘midoriya-kun’; this is similar to Capt. Picard, in the Star Trek series, addressing Wesley as ‘Young Wesley Crusher’.


mata ashita, moshi-moshi Ep.1



Then… see you tomorrow.
hum… see ya. hello? (on the phone)



 

formal
sore-dewa. mata ashita.
aa. mata ashita. moshi-moshi?

それでわ。また あした。
ああ。また あした。ましもし?

それでわ。また明日。
ああ。また明日。ましもし?


casual
ja. mata ashita.
aa. mata. moshi-moshi?

じゃ。また あした。
ああ。また。もしもし?

じゃ。また明日。
ああ。また。もしもし?


  • In this context, ‘sore-dewa’, ‘sore-ja’, ‘dewa’, and ‘ja’ are all interchangeable.

ja, mata, ashita Ep.6



Eng: See ya…
      hum… See you tomorrow

lit: Then…
      hum… again tomorrow



 

formal
ja.
hai. ja mata ashita.

じゃ。
はい。 じゃ また あした。

じャ。
はい。 じゃまた明日。


casual
ja.
un… mata ashita.

じゃ。
うん… また あした。

じャ。
うん… また明日。



kore, ga, no Ep.8



Eng: This is Aiza’s Chopin.

lit: This! This is Aiza’s Chopin.



 

formal
kore ga aiza kun no shopan desu.
これが あいざ くんの ショパン です。
これがあいざ君のショパンです。


casual
kore ga aiza no shopan.
これが あいざの ショパン。
これがあいざのショパン。


  • the ‘ga’ particle emphasizes what comes before it, while ‘wa’ emphasizes what comes after it.

watashi/boku/ore, wo, te form Ep.13


 

formal
watashi wo mite kudasai (4 times)
わたしを みて ください。
私を見てください。


casual
ore wo miro!
watashi wo miro!
watashi wo miro!
boku wo miro!

おれを みろ!
わたしを みろ!
わたしを みろ!
ぼくを みろ!


  • ‘boku’ and ‘ore’ are casual forms of ‘watashi’; ‘boku’ has a connotation of being respectful, while ‘ore’ has one being manly, tough, and confident.
  • ‘mite’ is the imperative of ‘miru’ (to look); ‘miro’ is used when you are angry
  • we mark with を the direct objects of verbs, and with が the direct objects of adjectives.
  • the particle を is most often pronounced ‘o’, in spite that it is written as ‘wo’.

wa, ni, arimasen Ep.16



Eng: My bag is not at school

lit: The bag? It does not exist at the school



 

formal
kaban wa gakkou ni arimasen.
カバンは がっこうに ありません。
カバンは学校にありません。


casual
kaban gakkou ni nai
カバン がっこうに ない。
カバン学校にない。


  • Kawori is apologizing so she speaks formally to Kousei
  • ‘kaban’ is bag or briefcase
  • ‘gakkou’ is school

desu/da, watashi/boku Ep.16



Eng: I’m a fool.
      Ah, it’s snow.

lit: Me? I’m a fool.
      Ah, it’s snow!



 

formal
watashi wa baka desu. aa, yuki desu!
わたしは ばかです。ああ、ゆき です。
私はばかです。ああ、ゆきです。


casual
boku wa baka da. aa, yuki da!
ぼくは ばかだ。ああ、ゆき だ。
僕はばかだ。ああ、ゆきだ!


  • ‘boku’ is a casual form of ‘watashi’
  • ‘kaba’ is ‘fool’, or ‘idiot’
  • ‘da’ is the casual form of ‘desu’
  • ‘yuki’ is ‘snow’