Japanese I-17-24

With lessons 1-24 of the Pimsleur Japanese I course we should be able to understand most of the following clips from ‘Shigatsu wa kimi no uso” (Your lie in April).

onegaishimasu, kudasai, and choudai

This is a summary to the information in this post at stackexchange.

All ‘o-negai shi-masu’, ‘kudasai’ and ‘chousai’ mean ‘please’, but they are used in different ways:

onegaishimasu

The literal meaning is

  • o-: honorific
  • negai: request
  • shi-masu: formal version of ‘suru’, i.e., ‘to do’

Hence, ‘o-negai shi-masu’ is a humble request for someone to do us a favor [Alenanno].

kudasai

It has two meanings (jisho.org):


‘please, give me’
give me 10 dollars, please (to the spouse)
give me water, please (to the waiter)


juu doru kudasai
mizu wo kudasai




‘please, do for me’ (after -te form)
turn to the right, please (to the taxi driver)
listen and repeat, please (to a student)


migi he itte kudasai
kiite, kurikaeshite kudasai


Hence, ‘kudasai’ is a request to an equal or someone of lower status to do something.

choudai

This is a female-only version of ‘kudasai’.

Here is a scene from Ep. 3 of “Your lie in April”, in which Kawori is begging Kousei for his help. She uses ‘o-negai shi-masu’, which is a more serious request than ‘kudasai’.


Therefore…
Do me the favor.
Be my accompanist, please.


da kara…
o-negai shi-masu.
watashi no banzou wo shite kudasai.



ohayou, matte, kore Ep.3



‘morning, Tsubaki.
‘morning.
wait right there!



 

formal
tsubaki. o-hayou gozaimasu.
o-hayou gozaimasu.
kore ni chotto matte kudasai.

つばき。お早う ございます。
お早う ございます。
これに ちょっと まって ください。

つばき。お早うございます。
お早うございます。
これに一寸まって下さい。


casual
tsubaki. o-hayou
o-hayou
matte kore!

つばき おはよう。
おはよう。
まって これ!

つばきお早う。
お早う。
まってこれ!


  • In this context, the formal text is out of place

-tachi, mo Ep.7



Eng: We are not Chopin either.

lit: Us? We aren’t Chopin either.



 

formal
watashi-tachi mo shopan ja arimasen.
わたしたちも ショパン じゃありません。
私たちもショパンじゃありません。


casual
watashi-tachi wa shopan ja nai mo.
わたしたちは ショパン じゃないも。
私たちはショパンじゃないも。


  • ‘mo’ means ‘as well’, i.e., ‘also’ in a positive context, and ‘neither’ in a negative one.

hajime-mashite Ep.9



Eng: Glad to meet you.
      I’m Yuriko Ochiai.
      What’s your name?

Lit: we are meeting for the first time.
      I’m Yuriko Ochiai.
      Your name?



 

formal
hajime-mashite. ochiai yuriko desu. anata no namae wa?
はじめまして。うちだ ゆりこ です。あなたの なまえは?
はじめまして。うちだゆりこです。あなたの名前は?


casual
hajime-mashite. ochiai da. kimi no na wa?
はじめまして。うちだだ。きみの なは?
はじめまして。うちだな。君の名は?


  • ‘namae’ is ‘name’, but it’s casually shortened to ‘na’. For example, the original title of the movie ‘Your name’ is ‘kimi no na wa’ (君の名は).
  • Unlike most western countries, in Japan (and many other asian countries) the family name (the surname) comes before the first name.

otoko-no-ko, na-adjective Ep.18


 

formal
zankoku-na otoko-no-ko desu
ざんこくな おとこのこ です。
ざんこくな男の子です。


casual
zankoku-na otoko-no-ko
ざんこくな おとこのこ。
ざんこくな男の子。


  • ‘zankoku-na’ (i.e., cruel) is a na-adjective. We append ‘-na’ to the adjective when we apply it to a noun, e.g., ‘zankoku-na otoko-no-ko’, but not when the adjective is alone, e.g., ‘zankoku desu’

na-adjective Ep.19



Eng: I’m a despicable woman!

lit: Me? I’m a despicable woman!



 

formal
watashi wa iya-na onna desu ne.
わたしは いやな おんな ですね。
私はいやな女ですね。


casual
watashi wa iya-na onna da na.
わたしは いやな おんな だな。
私はいやな女だな。


  • ‘iya’ means ‘disagreeable’, ‘despicable’, ‘detestable’, etc.
  • ‘iya-na’ is a na-adjective. We append ‘-na’ to the adjective when we apply it to a noun, e.g., ‘iya-na onna’, but not when the adjective is alone, e.g., ‘iya desu’.

hitori Ep.22


 

formal
watashi wa hitori dewa arimasen.
わたしは ひとり では ありません。
私は一人ではありません。


casual
boku wa hitori ja nai.
ぼくは ひとり じゃない。
僕は一人じゃない。


  • ‘hitori’ means ‘one person’, but it also means ‘alone’ or ‘by him/her-self’.
  • Although we wrote down a formal version of the sentence, it does not make much sense in this context, because Kosei is talking to himself, and nobody (or at least ‘most people’) do not talk to themselves formally. It would be correct if Kosei were talking to someone else, though.